Colorectal cancer is cancer that starts in the colon or rectum. The colon and the rectum are parts of the large intestine, which is the lower part of the body’s digestive system. During digestion, food moves through the stomach and small intestine into the colon. The colon absorbs water and nutrients from the food and stores waste matter (stool).

Stool moves from the colon into the rectum before it leaves the body.

Most colorectal cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancers that begin in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids).

Colorectal cancer often begins as a growth called a polyp, which may form on the inner wall of the colon or rectum.

Some polyps become cancer over time. Finding and removing polyps can prevent colorectal cancer.

Deaths from colorectal cancer have decreased with the use of colonoscopies and fecal occult blood tests( test for blood in the stool.)

Risk Factors :- Anything that increases your chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn’t mean that you will not get cancer. Talk with your doctor if you think you may be at risk. Risk factors include the following:

  • A family history of cancer of the colon or rectum.
  • Certain hereditary conditions, such as familial adenomatous polyposis and hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC; Lynch Syndrome).
  • A history of ulcerative colitis (ulcers in the lining of the large intestine) or Crohn’s disease.
  • A personal history of cancer of the colon, rectum, ovary, endometrium, or breast.
  • A personal history of polyps (small areas of bulging tissue) in the colon or rectum.

Check with your doctor if you have any of the following signs or symptoms:

  • A change in bowel habits.
  • Blood (either bright red or very dark) in the stool.
  • Diarrhea, constipation, or feeling that the bowel does not empty all the way.
  • Frequent gas pains, bloating, fullness, or cramps.
  • Weight loss & Loss of appetite for no known reason.
  • Feeling very tired.
  • Vomiting.
Common Treatments for Cancer
  • Surgery (அறுவை சிகிச்சை)
  • Chemotherapy (கீமோதெரபி)
  • Radiation Therapy (கதிரியக்க சிகிச்சை)
  • Targeted Therapy (இலக்கு சிகிச்சை)
  • Immunotherapy (தடுப்பாற்றடக்கு)
Learning about cancer surgery

You’ve been told you or your relative have cancer. You’ve looked at the treatment options, and you and your doctor agree that surgery is needed. Now you may have questions about cancer surgery.

Open and honest talks with Gateway GI cancer care team is the best way to understand what’s going on with you, your body, and the cancer.

Surgery has been used to treat cancer for many, many years. Surgery also plays a key role in diagnosing cancer and finding out how far it may have spread (a process is called staging). Ongoing advances in surgical techniques allow surgeons to operate on a growing number of patients and have good outcomes.

When a surgeon has to cut into the body to operate, it’s called invasive surgery. Today, operations that involve less cutting (less invasive surgery) like Laparoscopic Cancer surgery often can be done to remove tumors while saving as much normal tissue and function as possible. (For example : Laparoscopic Right Hemicolectomy, Laparoscopic Subtotal/Total Colectomy, Laparoscopic Anterior Resection or APR for rectal Cancer etc.)

Surgery offers the greatest chance for a cure for many types of cancer, especially those that have not spread to other parts of the body (without distant metastasis). Most people with cancer will have some type of surgery.